Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases Clinic of İstanbul Cerrahi Hospital is characterized by being a reference center for both individuals with diabetes suspect and diabetic patients in its “Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes Clinic”. At the department where medical conditions of endocrine glands, such as adrenal glands and pituitary gland, and ovaries, testes and thyroid gland are diagnosed and treated, qualified physicians diagnose diseases that affect endocrine glands. The department provides a wide range of services, which includes many systems of body, by specialists.

Thyroid Diseases :
Patients with abnormally high thyroid hormone (Hyperthyroidism) secondary to excessive secretion of hormone in thyroid gland or low thyroid hormone (Hypothyroidism) secondary to insufficient secretion of hormone in thyroid gland are treated at this department. Patients are either given thyroid hormone or a drug to block excessive hormone production in order to restore balanced hormone synthesis. The department also serves patients with thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer and goiter.

Pituitary Gland :
Since the pituitary gland regulates all endocrine glands, it is also known as maestro. Pituitary gland secretes important hormones. Excessive or low secretion of these hormones leads to many medical problems, including but not limited to infertility, irregular menses, growth disorders (excessive growth or short height), cortisol imbalances (obesity or leanness) and high level of prolactin. Medication therapy is the first-line treatment of medical conditions arising out of the pituitary gland. Patients who need surgical treatment are referred to relevant department.

Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes Clinic :
Diabetes is the pioneering one of most common endocrine glands disorders in our country and worldwide due to its complications.

Pre-diabetes is defined as a step before obvious diabetes. Pre-diabetic individuals are also at risk of severe complications, such as stroke and cardiovascular diseases, which are caused by diabetes. Moreover, diabetes may develop in these people within several years. However, it is possible to reduce the risk with a correct approach. Thus, diagnosis of pre-diabetes has great importance.

Diagnosis and Treatment :
If blood glucose level is not high enough to make diagnosis of diabetes, albeit above normal ranges, the diagnosis becomes definitive with laboratory tests and clinical correlation.

Diagnostic Factors :
Evaluation of post-prandial (after a breakfast) glucose by doctor with reference to fasting blood glucose.

Evaluation of glucose tolerance test, which involves measurement of blood glucose at pre-determined time points, after patient ingests 75 g of glucose.

 A HbA1C value between 5.6 and 6.

At the clinic, patients with pre-diabetes are placed on exercise and healthy nutrition program. Medical treatment is started, if required, according to the health status of patient. After definitive diagnosis is made, patients should present for follow-up visits in 3- to 6-month intervals in average. Proper follow-up and treatment of pre-diabetes aim a healthy and long life.

Types of Diabetes :
Patients may face with diabetes when diagnosis is skipped at phase of pre-diabetes. There are two types of diabetes;

Type 1 Diabetes
It develops when pancreas synthesizes no or very low amount of insulin.  Type 1 diabetes is observed in one of every 20 diabetic patients. Most patients are younger than 20.

Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes accounts for a substantial part of diabetic population. Although it is generally seen in people older than 40 years, it is, recently, getting more common in adolescents and children. Although patients with high body weight and genetic predisposition are at higher risk, all patients are recommended to seek medical attention, particular symptoms are observed, such as increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision and frequent infections. Therapeutic approaches include healthy nutrition habits, regular blood-glucose monitoring, physical activity and insulin, when required.

Obesity (Overweight) :
Endocrinologists evaluate overweight and obese patients due to metabolic and hormonal problems and start them on treatment. Obese people have excessive body fat. Thyroidal, adrenal, ovarian and pituitary disorders may cause obesity. Specialists also evaluate and treat obesity-related insulin resistance and genetic problems.